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  • 英文時間 / 肯塔基州最後一間墮胎診所面臨關閉


    29 十二月 2017 EZ叢書館


    (圖片來源:pixabay)

     

    In the decades that Dr. Ernest Marshall has been performing abortions in Louisville, Kentucky, more than a dozen clinics have closed in the state. He is now in a legal fight with the governor that will decide whether Kentucky becomes the first state in the country with noabortion provider. The state government tried to close EMW Women’s 2)Surgical Centerin March over claims that the clinic, which Marshall founded in 1981, doesn’t have sufficient agreements with a local hospital and an3)ambulance service in case a patient needs to be 4)transferred.

    恩尼斯馬歇爾醫師在肯塔基州路易維爾市執行墮胎手術已有數十年,州內十多間墮胎診所在這段期間陸續關閉。他現正與州長打官司,這宗訴訟將決定肯塔基州是否成為全美第一個沒有墮胎診所的州。州政府3 月時欲關閉馬歇爾於1981年開設的EMW 婦產外科中心,所持理由是該中心未與當地醫院與救護車業者達成妥善的病人轉診協議。

    Kentucky’s 5)pro-life Gov. Matt Bevin defends the licensing requirements as important for protecting women if a medical emergency occurs. Another new rule requires that doctors perform an 6)ultrasound and describe the 7)fetus to women seeking abortion. The clinic has responded with a federal lawsuit arguing that the licensing requirements lack any medical purpose and place an unconstitutional limit on women seeking abortions. The case, which went to trial Wednesday in Louisville, is being closely watched by both sides in the abortion 8)debate.

    反墮胎的肯塔基州長麥特貝文主張,州政府核准開業的規範是在保護女性,是要確保緊急醫療之所需。另一項新規定要求當婦女尋求墮胎時,醫生須執行超音波並描述胎兒狀態。該診所提出聯邦訴訟案回擊,主張核准開業的規範缺乏任何醫療目的,而且限制女性尋求墮胎是違憲的。這項訴訟案已於週三在路易維爾市進行審理,受到墮胎議題正反雙方的密切關注。

    In recent years, conservative state governments across the U.S. have passed many laws and regulations that have made it increasingly difficult for abortion providers to stay in business. Kentucky is one of seven states—including North Dakota, South Dakota, Missouri, Mississippi, Wyoming and West Virginia—that have just one abortion clinic left. 9)Pro-choice supporters of the EMW clinic see Gov. Bevin’s actions as part of an effort by pro-lifers to limit women’s access to the 10)procedure, which has been legal nationwide since the 1973 Roe vs. Wade decision by the U.S. Supreme Court. (September 9)

    近年來,美國各地的保守州政府已通過許多法律和規定,使墮胎診所越來越難繼續經營。肯塔基州在內的七個州(其他包括北達科他州、南達科他州、密蘇里州、密西西比州、懷俄明州和西維吉尼亞州)只剩下一間墮胎診所。EMW 診所的墮胎支持者認為,貝文州長所提出的訴訟,是反墮胎支持者為了限制婦女墮胎而採取的行動。自1973 年聯邦最高法院裁定羅氏告韋德案後,全美墮胎程序已合法。(9 月 9 日)

    VOCABUL ARY
    1) abortion [4`b7r] 4n] (n.) 墮胎,流產
    Do you suppor t a woman’s right to have an abortion?
    2) surgical [`s-d.6k4l ] (a.) 外科的。「外科,外科手術」為surgery [`s-d. 4rI],「外科醫生」為surgeon [`s – d. 4n]
    The doctor asked the nurse to prepare the surgical instruments.
    3) ambulance [`1mbj4l 4 ns] (n.) 救護車
    When you hear an ambulance coming, you should pull over and let it pass.
    4) transfer [t r 1n s`f – ] (v.) 轉送他處,調動
    The patient was transferred to a larger hospital for treatment.
    5) pro-life [´pro` l a 6 f ] (a.) 反對墮胎的委婉詞
    Many Christians have pro -life views.
    6) ultrasound [`9 l tr4 ´s a 8 nd] (n.) 超音波
    The doctor used ultrasound to check the health of the fetus.
    7) fetus [`fit4s] (n.) 胎,(三個月後的)胎兒
    The doctor told the woman that her fetus was healthy.
    8) debate [d6`bet] (n./v.) 辯論,爭論
    Which side are you on in the global warming debate?
    9) pro-choice [´p ro`t] 7 6 s] (a.) 主張墮胎合法的委婉詞
    Most of the people in my family are pro-choice.
    10) procedure [p r4`s id. 0] (n.) 醫療程序,手術
    Liposuction is a simple and safe procedure.

    Roe vs. Wade 羅氏告韋德案
    1973 年,化名Jane Roe 的懷孕婦女控告當時德州達拉斯的司法長官Henry Wade,因為Jane Roe 意外懷孕,但在德州不能合法墮胎,轉向地下診所求助,卻發現診所已被查封。她指控德州法律對墮胎的限制,侵犯了她的隱私權。這項訴訟最後打到聯邦最高法院,最後承認婦女的墮胎權受到美國憲法保障。該判決至今仍頗受爭議。

    墮胎合法化
    Pros正方常用句

    說到爭議話題,「墮胎」的排名在美國絕對是數一數二,即使四十年前聯邦最高法院就已作出判決,支持婦女擁有墮胎權,但正反雙方的歧見不但未趨於和諧,還隨時間發酵日漸升高。
    ● In Roe vs. Wade, the Supreme Court ruled that abortion is a fundamental right guaranteed by the Constitution.
    聯邦最高法院在羅氏告韋德一案中裁定,墮胎是由憲法保障的基本權利。
    ● The right to abortion gives women control over their own bodies.
    墮胎權讓女性擁有自己身體的自主權。

    「羅氏告韋德案」當中,為了平衡女性自主權及胎兒生命權,聯邦最高法院提出孕程(trimester)初、中、後三期的考慮標準,初期婦女擁有絕對自主的權利,但懷孕滿三個月後,州政府可以保護孕婦健康為由限制墮胎;但到懷孕後期,政府也應保護潛在生命,除非孕婦受到極大健康威脅,否則禁止墮胎。

    ● Many believe that a fetus is not a person, and doesn’t have rights.
    許多人認為胎兒並非自然人,所以沒有權利。
    ● Access to legal abortions reduces the injuries and deaths caused by illegal abortions.
    合法墮胎可減少非法墮胎造成的傷害和死亡。
    ● Modern abortion procedures are safe and don’t cause any lasting health issues.
    現代墮胎手術很安全,不會造成長期後遺症。
    ● Abortion gives women the choice not to give birth to babies with severe birth defects.
    墮胎能讓女性選擇不生下嚴重缺陷的胎兒。
    ● Allowing abortions can help reduce welfare spending.
    允許墮胎有助於減少福利支出。

    墮胎合法化
    Cons反方常用句

    在美國,反墮胎運動基本上尋求的是禁止任何形式的墮胎,旨在推翻「羅氏告韋德案」的判決,主張胚胎/胎兒已有生命權。
    ●Killing human beings is wrong, even if they haven’t been born yet.
    殺人是錯的,就算是沒出生的胎兒。
    ● Life begins at conception, and all humans have a right to life.
    生命是從受精開始,所有人類都有生存的權利。
    ● Some research shows that fetuses feel pain during an abortion.
    部分研究顯示,胎兒在墮胎時會感覺疼痛。天主教背景的反墮胎,傾向禁絕任何形式的墮胎(甚至避孕),但也有部分反墮胎人士同意在特殊情況下得以墮胎(如亂倫、性侵、胎兒嚴重缺陷、孕婦性命垂危)。
    ● In some religions, abortion is considered a sin.
    在一些宗教中,墮胎被視為有罪。
    ●● Some studies show that abortions cause psychological damage to women.
    部分研究顯示,墮胎會對女性造成心理創傷。

    但反墮胎者的部分論點,仍不免將女性視為生育工具,及女性應為避孕失敗承擔後果的色彩。
    ●● With legal abortion, fewer babies are available for couples who want to adopt.
    對於想收養小孩的夫妻來說,墮胎合法會減少可收養的嬰兒人數。
    ●● Legal abortion encourages women to use abortion as contraception.
    合法墮胎會鼓勵女性以墮胎做為避孕措施。

    以上內容由EZ叢書館授權刊登,未經允許請勿轉載。
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